class="post-template-default single single-post postid-1599 single-format-standard">

22 October 2015

What is Hair Made Of?

HAIR COMPOSITION. WHAT IS KERATIN?

Human hair is an appendage which grows from follicles, tube like sacs in the scalp or skin containing the hair root. The hair that we cut, relax, color, and style is a non-living fiber comprised of keratinized protein. Within the hair follicle, cells are produced. These cells mature in an upward moving process through the follicle. This maturing process is known as keratinization. During keratinization cells absorb keratin, a fibrous protein. As the cells continue to move upward they lose their nucleus and die off, producing the non-living keratinized cells (appendage) that emerge from the scalp.

Hair is comprised of many contributing factors. Proteins, raw elements, amino acids, and bonds work together in forming hair fiber. The dominant contributor in the composition of hair is protein, accounting for 91 percent of hair fiber.

Amino acids, the building blocks of protein, are made up of COHNS elements, (Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulfur).

The percentage of COHNS elements in hair is as follows:

ELEMENTPERCENTAGE IN NORMAL HAIR
Carbon51%
Oxygen21%
Nitrogen17%
Hydrogen6%
Sulfur5%

These elements form bonds called side bonds which link together the long chain of amino acids known as the polypeptide chain. This chain forms a helix by creating spiral movement that intertwines.

The following are the amino acids and the percentage found in hair fiber:

AMINO ACIDPERCENTAGE IN NORMAL HAIR FIBER
Cysteine17.5%
Serine11.7%
Glutamic Acid11.1%
Threonine6.9%
Glycine6.5%
Leucine6.1%
Valine5.9%
Arginine5.6%
Aspartic Acid5.0%
Alanine4.8%
Proline3.6%
Isoleucine2.7%
Tyrosine1.9%
Phenylalanine1.4%
Histidine0.8%
Methionine0.5%

Millions of polypeptide chains reside in the cortex layer. Side bonds such as hydrogen bonds, salt bonds and disulfide bonds link together these polypeptide chains. Hair fibers are held in place by the side bonds which attribute to the elasticity and strength of hair.

A hydrogen bond can easily be broken by water or heat, and is a physical side bond. Collectively, hydrogen bonds account for one-third of hair’s strength.

Salt bonds are also physical side bonds. Strong acidic or alkaline solutions break salt bonds because they are affected by changes in pH. Like hydrogen bonds, salt bonds also account for approximately one-third of hair’s strength.

Disulfide bonds differ from hydrogen and salt bonds because they are not physical side bonds. Disulfide bonds are chemical side bonds. Disulfide bonds link together two sulfur atoms attached to cysteine amino acids within the polypeptide chains. Chemical hair relaxers and permanent waves chemically alter the hair’s disulfide bond. Disulfide bonds cannot be broken by water or heat.

BACK

Our Blog

The hair salon at Bellezza offers everything from haircuts and styling to superb highlights and coloring. Our stylist team continuously explores fresh ideas and new techniques for hair treatments and styling.

Winter Hair Trends: Colors and Styles

18 November 2016

Winter Hair Trends: Colors and Styles

With the changing of the seasons comes an attendant change in hairstyles. Now that it’s colder, topknots and fishtail braids are being traded in for warmer, hair down styles. There’s no need to stick to one ‘do for life’ … in fact, did you know that women have an average of 104 different hairstyles in…

Christmas Nail Trends Full of Festivity

14 November 2016

Christmas Nail Trends Full of Festivity

Christmas nails are a great way to showcase your personality and put on a little flair for the holidays. After all, what could be less drab than festive nails in the spirit of the season? As Maisie Williams once said: If you’ve got cool nails, you wake up and you’re like, ‘Oh, I’m happy now.’…

The Science Behind Microdermabrasion

01 November 2016

The Science Behind Microdermabrasion

Over time, external factors (such as the sun and even pollution) can have a damaging effect on your skin. And while there are chemical peels, serums, and other options available for improving the appearance and health of your skin, microdermabrasion remains one of the most popular treatments, with the average cost being around $150 per session.

9 Reasons to Wax Instead of Shave

24 October 2016

9 Reasons to Wax Instead of Shave

  Did you know that the average American woman spends nearly 60 days of her life shaving? If you’re tired of the skin irritation, time, and money that goes into shaving on a regular basis, then it may be time to consider waxing as a means of hair removal instead. After all, there are numerous benefits that waxing affords…

7 Psychological Benefits of Going to the Spa

11 October 2016

7 Psychological Benefits of Going to the Spa

You know the spa is a place to unwind, relax, and reconnect. But do you know all the psychological benefits you will enjoy when you make spa visits a regular habit? The spa industry is worth over $15 billion. This astronomic growth suggests that many are realizing the full range of wellness benefits regular spa visits…

7 Massage Types and What They are Best For

30 September 2016

7 Massage Types and What They are Best For

Massage offers amazing health benefits, like stress release, release of muscle tension, and better quality of sleep. When you take the time to select the right form of massage for your specific health needs, you’ll receive even more benefits from your spa treatment. Learn which type of massage to choose and how it can help based…

Best Ways to Wear the Color of the Year 2016  

09 February 2016

Best Ways to Wear the Color of the Year 2016  

This year color giant Pantone shocked the fashion and design world by selecting not just one color of the year, but two. The stunning pastel duo of Serenity and Rose Quartz offer an updated take on the pink and blue so familiar in nursery decor. Get our tips on the best ways to wear Pantone’s…

Ready to Look Younger? Best Anti—Aging Treatments

04 February 2016

Ready to Look Younger? Best Anti—Aging Treatments

Miami day spas cater to the wellness needs of residents with anti-aging treatments that restore the youthful appearance and texture of skin from the inside out. By incorporating soothing techniques with ingredients that are proven to moisturize skin and reduce the appearance of fine lines, day spa treatments can help you look your best at…

Skin Troubles? Best Skin Clearing Foods for You

02 February 2016

Skin Troubles? Best Skin Clearing Foods for You

Tired of looking in the mirror, only to notice troublesome skin? Maybe you’re dealing with unsightly acne, signs of aging, or downright dry and dull skin. Regardless of your skin woes, there’s a good chance that what you’re eating (or not eating) is at least partially to blame. After all, your skin is an organ…

Nail Care Tips for Every Nail Type  

28 January 2016

Nail Care Tips for Every Nail Type  

In a perfect world, all women would have beautifully manicured nails without any effort. But, as you probably know all too well, this simply isn’t the case. Getting great-looking nails takes a great deal of work, time, and (often) money. However, even the best manicure or pedicure won’t solve the underlying problem of unhealthy nails….